HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR
158 years ago, on April 12, 1861, the first formal hostilities of the American Civil War occurred when Confederate troops attacked the military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. The Fort, located in Charleston harbor was a coastal fortification built after the War of 1812 as part of the U.S. coastal fortification system. Over 30 years in the building, it still was not finished when the first attack rang out in 1861. By this time South Carolina had already declared its secession from the Union over 4 months earlier. Repeated requests by the state for the federal soldiers to evacuate had been ignored. One last request on April 11 was declined, and nearby Fort Johnson opened fire on Fort Sumter. For 34 continuous hours Confederate batteries fired upon Fort Sumter starting, it is reported, at 4:30 AM.
The next day, on April 13, Fort Sumter surrendered. No soldier in the Fort died during the battle, though one Confederate soldier later died of a wound from a misfired cannon. Escalation of hostilities accelerated with President Lincoln calling for a volunteer army as four additional Southern states declared their secession.
This war developed a number of “firsts” that would play out in later wars to follow. Trench warfare, developed by General Sherman in Georgia would be seen in the fields of battle of World War I. Hand crank operated rapid-fire guns, like the Coffee Mill Gun and the Gatling Gun — presaging machine gun warfare in WWI — allowed rapid shooting that could devastate an advancing line of soldiers. The use of electrified technologies like railroad trains, telegraph, mines — as well as highly mechanized approaches like torpedoes, ironclad ships and aerial observation made their debut during this War Between the States, or as it was called in the South the “War of Northern Aggression.”
But the the most startling fact of this war, and perhaps the least appreciated, is that it was the deadliest of all the wars American had fought before, or since. 620,000 soldiers, as well as unknown civilian deaths, occurred between 1861 and 1865. Why so many? Because casualties on both sides were counted as American deaths. In the North one-tenth of the adult male population under 45 died. But in the south, it was almost a third of the white males. The Reconstruction period would last well over a decade.
Bill Petro, your friendly neighborhood historian