HISTORY OF GROUNDHOG DAY
Groundhog Day comes from Candlemas Day, observed for centuries in parts of Europe on February 2. The custom was to have the clergy bless candles – representing how long winter would be – and distribute them to the people.
A Pagan Holiday
This seems to have derived from the pagan celebration of Imbolc — the Feast of the goddess Bridget.
A Christian Holiday
In Christian Ireland, it’s St. Bridget’s Day and, alternatively, “The Purification of the Virgin,” commemorating the time when St. Mary presented Jesus at the Temple in Jerusalem.
Modern Groundhog Day
In more modern times, says the old Scottish couplet:
If Candlemas Day is bright and clear
There’ll be two winters in the year
By the 1840s, the following idea caught on in the U.S., particularly in Pennsylvania, whose earliest settlers were German immigrants. Their folk traditions had people looking to badgers or hedgehogs for their shadows on a sunny day. Eventually, the tradition shifted over to groundhogs instead.
In 1886, the editor of The Punxsutawney Spirit newspaper dubbed the day “Groundhog Day.” If the groundhog sees its shadow on a “bright and clear” day, six more weeks of winter are ahead.
Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, is the headquarters of the celebration where the groundhog “Punxsutawney Phil” regards his shadow at Gobbler’s Knob, a wooded knoll just outside the town. And Bill Murray visited this location (repeatedly) in his movie Groundhog Day.
Tens of thousands have gathered annually at Gobbler’s Knob for the event.
Bill Petro, your friendly neighborhood historian