History of Martin Luther: Part 4 – Outlawed

Martin Luther

HISTORY OF MARTIN LUTHER: PART 4 – OUTLAWED

Following Martin Luther’s posting of the 95 Theses on the Wittenberg Door on October 31, 1517, several debates, diets, and disputations occurred where Luther was unsuccessful in convincing the Roman Catholic Church of the correctness of his views. His excommunication in early 1521 removed him from communion with the church he had dedicated his life to 16 years earlier as a monk. Now branded a heretic, Luther was summoned to appear before the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Luther’s protector, Prince Frederick III, Elector of Saxony arranged that if Luther would go to Worms, he’d be guaranteed safe passage. 100 years previously Jan Hus was similarly called before the Emperor at the Council of Constance. It had not been forgotten: Hus did not get out alive but was burned for heresy.

Celebrity

The expectation was that Luther would travel the 300 miles to Worms penitent and repenting. Instead, as he began his trip on April 3, 1521, he was invited to preach at Erfurt, Gotta, and Eisenach along the way from Wittenberg. It was more of a triumphal procession.

Martin Luther Woodcut

At the Diet of Worms

As a heretic, Luther’s hearing in Worms could not be held in the church, but next to it in a building at the Heylshof Garden. That building has since been bombed by the Allies during WWII, but a plaque commemorates that here Luther stood:

Luther Plaque

Here stood, before Emperor and Empire, Martin Luther, 1521

 

The Emperor

Charles V

”I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse.”

Holy Roman Empire

The Prosecution

Johann Eck (Johannes von der Ecken) a professor from Ingolstadt whom Luther had debated at Leipzig, would act as his prosecutor and spokesman for the Emperor. Eck had burned Luther’s books in Worms. Luther’s defense lawyer would be Dr. Hieronymus Schurff, who was Professor of Canon Law at the University of Wittenberg.

Imperial Diet

Luther Before Emperor

These books are all mine. And I have written more.

Secondly, he was asked if he was ready to revoke them. Luther replied

I beg you, give me time to think it over

…saying he needed more time to answer satisfactorily.

Second Day

The next day, after a night of consultation with friends and hours-long prayer Luther, replied to the second question, if he would reject them, saying:

Most serene emperor, most illustrious princes, most clement lords. I beseech you, to kindly pardon me, as a man accustomed not to courts but to the cells of monks.

He then divided the books into different categories. For those written against individuals, he apologized for the harshness of his tone, but not their substance. His prosecutor Ecken finally asked again:

Martin, answer candidly and without horns, do you or do you not repudiate your books and the errors which they contain?

Luther finally uttered the famous words:

Martin Luther at Worms

While not recorded in the transcripts, in the first printed version of the speech he also added:

“Here I stand, I can do no other, God help me. Amen.”

The story is told that Luther remained ten days in Worms, as he had 21 days of guaranteed safe passage. During this time, he was offered a Cardinal’s cap if he would recant. The Roman church believed that greed was motivating Luther and could be bought off with a high church office.

He left Worms before the decision of his guilt was reached.

Edict of Worms

The next month, on May 25 the Edict of Worms decree was issued by Emperor Charles V, with these words:
Edict Of Worms

For this reason we forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favour the said Martin Luther. On the contrary, we want him to be apprehended and punished as a notorious heretic, as he deserves, to be brought personally before us, or to be securely guarded until those who have captured him inform us, whereupon we will order the appropriate manner of proceeding against the said Luther. Those who will help in his capture will be rewarded generously for their good work.

Luther was seen now as both a heretic and an outlaw.

But as he was returning to Wittenberg, Luther was kidnapped.

Continued in Part 5

Bill Petro, your friendly neighborhood historian
www.billpetro.com

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About billpetro

Bill Petro has been a technology sales enablement executive with extensive experience in Cloud Computing, Automation, Data Center, Information Storage, Big Data/Analytics, Mobile, and Social technologies.

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